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IX-1 Background IX-1 Nature of the Problem IX-1 Risk Analysis IX-1 Safety IX-3 Organization and Equipment IX-7 Operations A-1 Background A-1 Mountain Environment A-1 Jungle Environment A-2 Desert Environment A-2 Arctic Environment A-3 Urban Environment A-3 Littoral Environment A-4 Subterranean Environment D-1 Background D-1 Define the Battlespace Environment D-1 Evaluate the Adversary D-3 Determine Adversary Courses of Action E-1 Background E-1 Plan E-1 Operations E-2 Documentation E-9 Identification and Control E Reporting and Shipping E Witness Interviews E Handling and Packaging Materials E Techniques and Procedures E Chemical and Biological Sampling Environment E Medical Specimens E Radiological-Agent Sampling E Background Samples E vi Page Transfer Operations E Labeling and Documentation E Packaging of Samples for Shipment F-1 Background F-1 United States Army Capabilities F United States Navy Capabilities F Chemical Detector Capabilities and Interferents F Special-Purpose Equipment G-1 Background G-1 Movement Formations G-1 Movement Techniques G-6 Survey Techniques G-7 Search Techniques H-1 Background H-8 Conducting Medical Surveillance I-1 Area Monitoring I-1 Monitoring Techniques I-2 Correlation Factors I-3 Recording I-4 Radiological Surveys I-4 Radiological Monitoring Search J-1 Background J-1 Equipment J-1 vii Page Functions and Responsibilities J-3 Types of Reconnaissance Units J-4 Planning J-7 Search and Survey J Surveillance J Sampling J Unit Employment K-1 Background K-1 Types of Reports K-1 Integrated, Automated Warning and Reporting K-7 Reporting L-1 Background L-1 General L-7 Communications L-9 Command and Staff Relationships L-9 Premission Activities L Mission Activities L Postmission Activities M-1 Background M-1 Concept of Operations M-8 Aerospace Configuration M Maritime Configuration N-1 Background N-1 Description N-1 Employment N-2 Tasks N-4 Task Organization N-5 Communications I-6 Figure III Concept of NBC Reconnaissance IV-2 Figure IV IV-5 Figure VI NBC Survey VI-2 Figure VI NBC Surveillance VI-4 Figure VI NBC Route Reconnaissance VI-5 Figure VI NBC Zone Reconnaissance VI-7 Figure VI NBC Area Reconnaissance Sampling Process Suggested Operational Structure for a Sampling Mission NBC Report Flow Contamination Bypass Marker Levels of PPE IX Figure IX Downwind Search Upwind Search Crosswind Search IX Figure B SOP Outline B-1 Figure C Sample Unit Checklist C-1 ix Page Figure D D-6 Figure D Airburst Warhead Deposition Time Notional D-6 Figure E E Figure E Sample Chain-of-Custody Form Example of a Sample Identification Number Sample Label Sample Seal Sample Photographic Log Sample Recovery Log Sample Affidavit E Figure F F-1 Figure F F-2 Figure F Chemical Detachment Reconnaissance F-3 Figure F Chemical Company Reconnaissance F-4 Figure F Chemical Company Biological Detection F-5 Figure F Chemical Company Heavy Division F-6 Figure F F-7 Figure F F-8 Figure F F Figure G Staggered Column Formation G-2 Figure G Wedge Formation G-3 Figure G Column-of-Wedges Formation V Formation G-4 Figure G Split V Formation Echelon Left and Right Formations G-5 Figure G Herringbone Formation G-6 Figure G Coil Formation Nearside-Farside Survey Technique G-8 Figure G Box Survey Technique on Orientation A G Figure G Box Survey Technique on Orientation B Box Survey Technique on Orientation C Box Survey Technique on Orientation D Star Survey Technique Bounce-and-Bypass Survey Technique Zigzag Search Technique G x Page Figure G Lane Search Technique Cloverleaf Search Technique G Figure H Dice Five Pattern Detector Placement H-2 Figure H H-3 Figure I I-8 Figure I I-9 Figure I Sample Mission Order Format I Figure K K-2 Figure K K-3 Figure K K-4 Figure K K-5 Figure K K-6 Figure K K-7 Figure L LB Team L-5 Figure L L-8 Figure L L-8 Figure M M-2 Figure M Single-System Detection Technique M-5 Figure M They all have a threaded muzzle for fitting a fireworks adapter so that Ammunition for blank-fire- and signal guns: The most used ammunition is surely the Sold in a box of 50 for use in.
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Gas pistol Atak Zoraki Auto black, cal. With the help of the adapter it is possible to fire rockets or other pyrotechnic Machine Guns. Submachine Guns Installation Instructions Sample Photographic Log Sample Recovery Log Sample Affidavit E Figure F F-1 Figure F F-2 Figure F Chemical Detachment Reconnaissance F-3 Figure F Chemical Company Reconnaissance F-4 Figure F Chemical Company Biological Detection F-5 Figure F Chemical Company Heavy Division F-6 Figure F F-7 Figure F F-8 Figure F F Figure G Staggered Column Formation G-2 Figure G Wedge Formation G-3 Figure G Column-of-Wedges Formation V Formation G-4 Figure G Split V Formation Echelon Left and Right Formations G-5 Figure G Herringbone Formation G-6 Figure G Coil Formation Nearside-Farside Survey Technique G-8 Figure G Box Survey Technique on Orientation A G Figure G Box Survey Technique on Orientation B Box Survey Technique on Orientation C Box Survey Technique on Orientation D Star Survey Technique Bounce-and-Bypass Survey Technique Zigzag Search Technique G x Page Figure G Lane Search Technique Cloverleaf Search Technique G Figure H Dice Five Pattern Detector Placement H-2 Figure H H-3 Figure I I-8 Figure I I-9 Figure I Sample Mission Order Format I Figure K K-2 Figure K K-3 Figure K K-4 Figure K K-5 Figure K K-6 Figure K K-7 Figure L LB Team L-5 Figure L L-8 Figure L L-8 Figure M M-2 Figure M Single-System Detection Technique M-5 Figure M Multiple-System Detection Technique Positioning Detectors at Fixed-Site Locations M-7 Figure M M-7 Figure N Common Team and Unit Actions IX-4 Table IX Protection Levels IX-5 Table IX Approach Selection Criteria IX Table E Selecting the Sampling Location E-7 Table E Country Codes E Table E Container Selection CB Sample Collection Equipment Recommended Sizes of Samples E Table F F xi Page Table F Chemical Detector and Monitor Capabilities F Table F Chemical Detector Limits and Miosis Levels Environmental Conditions F Table G Movement Techniques G-6 Table H Number of Detectors Required H-3 Table J M93 Capabilities and Limitations J-2 Table J M93A1 Capabilities and Limitations J-3 Table J MM1 Methods J Table J Search and Survey Patterns J Table L Representative CRD Equipment L Table L Sample Mission Tasking and Planning Process Outline for a Mission Back Brief Checklist for Mission Considerations It addresses the reconnaissance information requirements IR of the commander.
The principles of NBC reconnaissance and the management of information resulting from NBC reconnaissance are discussed as they relate to command decisions.
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It discusses the threat environment and NBC capabilities of adversary states. It provides and discusses potential scenarios to assist in understanding the threat. Chapter II also discusses the land, maritime, air, space, weather, and civil infrastructure environments as they impact reconnaissance operations.
It addresses the need for peacetime preparedness and provides a checklist to assess the readiness for NBC reconnaissance. It discusses the transition to operations and the sustained combat operations planning for NBC reconnaissance. It also provides examples of the employment of NBC reconnaissance assets and addresses the actions required during conflict termination.
It addresses the levels of NBC reconnaissance planning and the development of the reconnaissance plan. It discusses NBC reconnaissance capabilities common to components and provides descriptions of equipment common to the services. It addresses service component capabilities and discusses specialized support elements.
Chapter VI Tasks Chapter VI provides information on the various types of NBC reconnaissance tasks search; survey; surveillance; sampling; and route, zone, and area reconnaissance used to support military operations.
It describes NBC reports, their use, when they are to be prepared, and who is responsible for completing them. It focuses on the importance of accurate reporting in NBC reconnaissance operations, discusses NBC contamination marking, and provides marking procedures.
This chapter also discusses TIM planning and safety considerations and provides information on the reconnaissance organization and equipment requirements that are necessary for TIM operations. It discusses reconnaissance techniques for use when encountering TIM and provides a safety checklist for TIM operations, including personal protective equipment PPE selection.
Background NBC reconnaissance is a contamination avoidance measure that provides commanders with information on NBC hazards in an area of operations AO. NBC reconnaissance elements perform five critical tasks—detection, identification, marking, reporting, and sampling. Detection is required for the timely warning of units.
Identification supports protection level selection, preventive measures, and casualty treatment. Marking allows friendly forces to avoid the hazard. Reporting allows resource status assessment and mission asset assignment. Sampling aids the identification process.
Mission NBC reconnaissance elements conduct searches, surveys, surveillance, sampling, and reconnaissance route, area, or zone to confirm the presence or absence of NBC hazards or attacks. NBC reconnaissance is conducted to obtain information via observation, sensors, detectors, or other methods. It may include gathering information on the enemy use of NBC weapons, associated hazards, or meteorological data for NBC hazard prediction.
Searches are conducted to find the contamination. Surveys determine the location and size of the contamination.
Surveillance is the systematic observation of aerospace, surface and subsurface areas, persons, places, and things by visual, aural, electronic, and other means. The surveillance process can also include medical surveillance, which is the ongoing systematic collection of health data essential to the evaluation, planning, and implementation of public health practices.
Sampling is the process of selecting, collecting, documenting, and packaging specimens. Route reconnaissance focuses on obtaining information along a specific line of communications LOC route , such as a road, railway, or cross-country mobility corridor. The route may be a single road or an axis of advance. Area reconnaissance sometimes referred to as point reconnaissance focuses on obtaining information within a prescribed area.
The area may be a town, installation, ridgeline, airhead, bridge, or I-1 another feature that is critical to operations. Areas are normally smaller than zones, and an area reconnaissance is usually quicker than a zone reconnaissance. Zone reconnaissance focuses on obtaining information within a specific zone, such as all routes, obstacles, terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries.
A zone reconnaissance may include several route or area reconnaissance missions assigned to subordinate elements. It may be appropriate when previous knowledge of the area is limited and there are indications or reports of NBC hazards. NOTE: Route, area, and zone reconnaissance may include finding a bypass clear route that allows forces to avoid contamination. NBC reconnaissance must ensure timeliness, survivability, reliability, suitability, and connectivity. Reconnaissance assets must be responsive to meet the needs of the commander.
The commander uses NBC reconnaissance assets to provide information when and where needed. Survivability is commensurate with the threats to which NBC reconnaissance assets will be exposed during the course of operations.
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Careful mission planning, intelligent tasking, effective employment tactics, and capability overlap to ensure the survivability of specific capabilities and functions. Planning provides mission tasking that is based on asset suitability within the context of the overall plan. NBC reconnaissance assets must transmit information accurately and timely, taking into account connectivity and interoperability, which are crucial to overall responsiveness.
Reconnaissance produces information that allows friendly forces to avoid contaminated areas and take required protective measures. This is done by using IPB to determine where and when to employ sensors.
By avoiding contaminated areas, the commander maintains freedom of action. Knowing the location of contaminated areas allows units to practice contamination avoidance.
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This permits air base AB , maritime, and ground forces to continue their operations relatively unimpeded. The commander orients his reconnaissance assets by identifying a reconnaissance objective within the AO. The reconnaissance objective may be a terrain feature, geographical area, or enemy activity about which the commander wants to obtain additional information.
This is important because— n NBC reconnaissance is performed to support critical decisions, such as warning, protection, and treatment decisions. It also provides the physical state of the hazard gas, liquid, solid. Once contamination is encountered, the unit providing the information must— n Determine the agent type, the intensity or concentration, and the geographic area affected.
The unit uses all available capabilities and integrates them to increase the probability of detection. Situational Awareness Decisions rely on information input to support situational awareness SA. Information sources that furnish warning, protection, treatment, verification, confirmation, all clear, and surface contamination data support SA maintenance.
Detection for warning standoff detection provides warning in sufficient time to implement protective, preventive, and treatment measures before exposure to agent contamination occurs.
When there are insufficient automatic standoff detectors for chemical and biological CB agents, it is necessary to rely on available detectors, attack indicators, and preventive medicine PVNTMED sampling and analysis.
I-3 1 For attacks upwind of a unit, detection must occur at sufficient upwind distances to provide a reasonable amount of time for processing and transmitting information. Detecting the leading edge of the cloud is preferable because it allows more warning time; however, this requires greater detector sensitivity because the agent is less concentrated at the leading edge of the cloud than in the middle of the cloud.
Lacking the necessary point or standoff detectors, commanders must decide when the possibility of attacks warrants an increased protective posture based on intelligence indications. Reports from upwind units can also provide warning of an attack, assuming that the units have the necessary detectors, have observed enemy activities indicative of an attack, or have identified an agent through detection by sampling and analysis.
Protection and Treatment.
Detection for protection and treatment focuses on identifying the agent dispersed in an attack so that the best possible protection and medical treatment can be rendered early. Since some aspects of treatment are agent- specific, agent discrimination is extremely important. Sampling is a local action, while analysis can occur locally or at Department of Defense DOD -designated reference laboratories. Medical personnel collect and submit clinical samples from patients, and NBC and medical personnel perform environmental sampling and detection functions.
The systematic collection of health care data is essential to the surveillance process. For example, establishing baseline health care data is an important contributor to biological warfare BW defense SA. Verification and Confirmation. Detection for verification has implications at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
Definitive identification and confirmation at the strategic level provide critical information to support decisions regarding national strategic direction and integration.E Chemical and Biological Sampling Environment If you need assistance with an order or the publishing process, please contact our support team directly.
F-1 Background Box Survey Technique on Orientation B For example, establishing baseline health care data is an important contributor to biological warfare BW defense SA. A-4 Subterranean Environment Five people died from anthrax inhalation.
When preparing for postattack reconnaissance, teams will exercise caution to avoid crossing through cordoned and contaminated areas. F-5 Figure F Approach Selection Criteria