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For example, Gb8 harmonizes the stomach and alleviates vomiting; B8 point acts on abdominal distension and Sj19 relieves vomiting see Figure 1 and Table 2 [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. In TCM temporal area is related to functions of the liver and gallbladder, which are strongly associated with digestive physiology [ 23 ]. The occipital zone is associated with digestive and genital functions and the corporal segment D No acupoints are found within this area with remote functions; however the occipital headache in TCM is associated with involvement of bladder and kidney channels, meridians related to genitourinary functions of water element [ 23 ].

Five acupoints showed local action on neck pain and headache see Figure 1 and Table 2 [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. Regarding acupuncture channels, 4 channels with anatomic correlation are observed; the heart channel ends its pathway in infraorbital zone.

The stomach channel begins its pathway in infraorbital zone and goes through face; in TCM this channel is related to frontal cephalea [ 23 ]. When the liver channel reaches the face it passes through the eye up to the cranial vertex; in TCM the retroocular headache and the upper headache are related to this channel [ 23 ].

The gallbladder channel shows an intricate pathway in lateral head and face areas; in TCM lateral and temporal headache is related to this channel [ 23 ]. Upper Area Head Zone of Heart and Lung The upper area comprises heart and lung zones and corresponds to D1 to D6 dermatomes; in cases of aggravation of the disease, dermatomes D7 to D9 and neck may be included. They relate to clinical cases of cardiac hypertrophy and dilatation, valvulopathy, angina, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, acute pain in pulmonary disease, acute bronchitis, and pain with coughing episodes [ 14 ].


This zone presents high variability depending on the involvement of the disease. At the anterior side anatomical correlation is observed between this area and the heart channel in chest, upper limb, and infraorbital area. Similarly, it is possible to appreciate the anatomical correlation of this zone with pericardium channel at chest and upper limb see Figure 2 a.

In posterior thorax and upper limb, anatomical correlation with acupuncture channels was weak but acupuncture points with anatomic and functional correlation with heart and lung physiology were found.

Inside the upper area there are also channels of small intestine, lung, San Jiao, and large intestine where anatomical correlation was not so clear. Figure 2: a Front view. Heart and lung Head zones in red. Heart channel: thick green line shows external pathway; dotted green line shows the internal pathway. Pericardium channel: thick yellow line shows the external pathway; dotted yellow line shows the internal pathway. The acupuncture points with therapeutic indication for heart or lung are highlighted.

The acupuncture points with therapeutic indications for heart or lung in the area are highlighted. As shown in Figure 2 a , five channels pass through Head Zones of heart and lung: kidney, stomach, spleen, pericardium, and Ren, areas that include 13 acupuncture points.

Three channels with 11 acupuncture points were found in the back: bladder, small intestine, and San Jiao. In the upper limb there is correspondence with 13 acupoints of channels of heart, pericardium, and San Jiao. Sir Head did not find any other viscerocutaneous relationships due to the anatomical gap between C5 and C8 [ 14 ]. These points show activity on lung, heart, or both see Table 3.


Table 3: Acupoints related to anatomical and functional zones for heart and lung. Similarly, it is observed that the therapeutic activity of acupuncture points can take effect on lung, heart functions, or both. For example, Ren 13 and B16 relieve thoracic pain.

K 25 clears heat in thorax and chest congestion. B14 alleviates chest pain, cough, and dyspnea see Table 3 [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. Functionally, points in small bowel channel are related to heart activity but in a slight manner, because of being paired channels [ 11 , 13 , 25 ].

Middle Area of the Body Head Zones for Stomach, Liver-Gallbladder and Bowels The anatomical correlation with channels is not so evident; however acupuncture points within this area, belonging to different channels, have anatomical and functional correlations see Figures 3 a and 3 b and Table 4. Table 4: Acupuncture points, anatomo-functionally related to stomach, liver, gallbladder, and bowels Head zones.

Figure 3: a Front view. Head zones of stomach in yellow, zone of liver in green, and zone of gallbladder and bowels zone in orange. The acupuncture points with therapeutic indications in the area are highlighted. In Figure 3 a it is possible to identify three channels of acupuncture in the Head zone of stomach, stomach, kidney, and Ren mai, located between dermatomes D6 to D9 which are related to clinical cases of acute gastritis and gastric ulcer.

In addition there are 8 acupoints that belong to these channels. In Figure 5 b , there is correspondence in the back area with two channels: bladder and Du and 5 acupuncture points.

Functionally the acupuncture points mentioned above have actions on digestive physiology see Table 4. At the anterior Head zone of liver-gallbladder, there are 16 acupoints belonging to 5 channels, gallbladder, kidney, stomach, liver, and Ren, matching anatomically when passing through this area see Figure 3 a and Table 4. In the back area, Figure 3 b shows 11 acupuncture points belonging to two channels: bladder and Du.

Functionally, these points relate to digestive and metabolic actions of liver in TCM. For instance, the acupoint Gb 24 benefits gallbladder and B18 controls and harmonizes liver [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. Head found clinical cases associated with liver and biliary colic pain in this area between dermatomes D7 to D In the Head zone of bowel located between dermatomes D9 to D12, rectum from S2 to S4 see Table 1 , there are 15 acupoints belonging to 6 channels: stomach, spleen, kidney, liver, gallbladder, and Ren see Figure 3 a.

In the back zone, there are 11 acupuncture points belonging to the bladder channels and Du mai see Figure 3 b. There are 6 points of the bladder channel in lower limbs, and 2 points in perineal area belonging to Du mai and Ren mai. Functionally this area has intestinal digestive activity.

Functional Atlas of the Human Fascial System {2015][UnitedVRG]

Similarly, points Sp13 to Sp15 of spleen channel regulate lower jiao [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. There are acupuncture points that perform an effect on more than one zone, such as L13 which has extensive digestive action because of being the Mu point of spleen channel see Table 4. In the middle area, there are 74 points related, 39 of them in the region of abdomen belong to 6 channels, 27 in the back belong to two channels, 2 points in perineal area belong to two channels and 6 points in lower limbs belong to one channel.

As shown in Figure 4 a , there are 8 acupoints in lower abdomen belonging to 4 channels: stomach, kidney, gallbladder, and Ren, anatomically matching when passing through this area. In back area Figure 4 b , there are 4 points, belonging to the bladder and Du channels. Seven points belonging to 3 channels, liver, kidney, and spleen, are also observed in lower limb area in the same way that two points are observed in perineal area belonging to Du mai and Ren mai Figures 4 a and 4 b and Table 5.

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Functionally, this area is related to urinary activity, as documented in Sir Head clinical findings in patients with renal calculus and renal colic. Similarly, St 27 point benefits and nourishes the kidney and B23 point tonifies kidney functions in TMC [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. The anatomical correlation between Head zones of kidney, prostate, uterus with kidney channel at the level of lower abdomen, and inner thigh and foot are observable in Figure 4 a.

Table 5: Acupoints anatomo-functionally related to Head zones for kidney, bladder and genitalia. Figure 4: a Front view. Correlations between lower limb and lower abdomen with Head zones of kidney, prostate, and uterus with kidney channel highlighted in red.

Acupuncture points with therapeutic indication for bladder, kidney-ureter, and genital organs are highlighted. Correlations between lumbosacral and lower limbs area with Head zone of prostate, bladder, and uterus with bladder channel highlighted in red. Acupuncture points with therapeutic indication for bladder, kidney-ureter, and genitalia are highlighted. Figure 5: a Front view. Head zones in color: heart and lung zones in red; stomach zone in yellow; bowel zone in orange; liver and gallbladder zones in green; ureter-kidney, bladder, and genitalia zones in blue.

White dots: acupuncture points with similar functional activity at Head zone. Head zone of bladder comprises from dermatomes D11 to S4 excluding L2 to L4 due to anatomical gap.

In lower abdomen there are 7 acupuncture points belonging to 3 channels: stomach, kidney, and Ren that match anatomically when passing through this area see Figure 4 a. In back area there are 4 points belonging to the bladder channel with anatomical correlation. In lower limb there are 4 points belonging to 2 channels: bladder and liver, and finally in perineal area there are two points belonging to Du mai and Ren mai Figure 4 b and Table 5.

This area has effects on urinary function, as described by Sir Head in clinical cases of vesical calculus and urinary retention. In Figure 4 b , the anatomical correlation is observed between Head zones for prostate, bladder, and uterus with bladder channel at lumbosacral level and the posterior side of thigh and foot.

The genital area is composed of Head zones for prostate, epididymis and annexes, testis and ovary, and cervix and uterus which are located between dermatomes D10 and L5, excluding L2 to L4 because of anatomical gap see Table 1.

In the lower abdomen there are 13 acupuncture points belonging to four channels: stomach, kidney, gallbladder, and Ren, anatomically matching when passing through this area see Figure 4 a. At the back area there are 5 points from two channels: bladder and Du. In lower limbs there are 8 points belonging to 2 channels: bladder and liver.

In perineal area there are 2 points belonging to 2 channels, Ren and Du Figure 4 b and Table 5. The actions on genital and reproductive functions are related to the clinical descriptions of genital infections, and malignant diseases by Head.

In TCM, Du2 acupoint benefits the lumbar area and alleviates leucorrhoea and irregular menstruation [ 11 , 13 , 25 ]. In lower area 79 total acupoints were found: 28 of them in the low abdomen belonging to 4 channels, 13 acupoints in the back belonging to 2 channels, 32 acupoints in lower limb from 2 channels, and 6 acupoints in the perineal region corresponding to 2 channels. Discussion This paper is a research in the field of neural therapy, looking for a descriptive and comparative analysis to identify the anatomical and functional correlations between channels and acupoints in TCM and the viscerocutaneous relationships found by Head as a contribution for neural therapy practice.

The greater anatomical and functional correlation between channels and head zones corresponds to channels of heart, pericardium Figure 2 a , and kidney and bladder Figures 4 a and 4 b. Anatomo-functional relationships found with other channels were not remarkable.

Acupoints through channel of bladder in back exhibit functional-segmental relationship with the organs where it goes through, as documented by other studies Figures 4 b and 5 [ 21 , 22 , 26 ]. Several Head zones of head and neck show anatomic and functional relations with acupoints because of their remote action on thoracic-abdominal organs.

Analyzing the description of Head zones of stomach, liver, gallbladder, and bowels, a partial overlap of these three areas is evident. Equivalently, in TCM, there are acupuncture points that share therapeutic indications. A similar overlap occurs between Head zones of kidney, bladder, and sexual organs with acupoints located within this area due to having simultaneous activity in the 3 zones.

These overlapped areas and functions can be explained by the configuration on the nervous system of the abdominal visceral information, which is collected by the autonomous nervous system through afferents from the sympathetic nervous system and vagus nerve. These afferences pass through celiac ganglion and mesenteric ganglions and go to the dorsal horn of spinal cord where the information is integrated with dermatomes [ 1 , 17 , 19 ]. Furthermore, urinary and genital systems have a common embryological origin from the intermediate mesoderm [ 17 ].

In accordance with this finding, TCM considers that bladder and kidney are coupled organs, related to the regulation of urinary, sexual, and reproductive physiology, among other functions [ 12 , 13 ].

This anatomical and embryological correlation between acupuncture channels and Head zones is also functionally related to acupuncture points, reinforcing the theory of viscerocutaneous reflexes [ 27 — 29 ]. Recent authors have studied anatomical and physiological relationships between channels and acupuncture points with the embryological metameres, including the exploration Head zones [ 30 ]. In other studies the production and expression of somatic pain is compared with visceral pain, finding quantitative, qualitative, chemical, and anatomical differences in both as well as in afferent innervation density, type of innervation, and processing mechanisms and receptors involved [ 28 , 29 , 31 ].

There are studies about the viscero-somatic responses that ascend through the dorsal column of the spinal cord and connecting with spinothalamic tract. It seems that the information from segment level integrates with efferents of somatic origin and produces hyperalgesia, hypothermia, dystrophy, and pressure pain phenomena described by Head [ 32 — 34 ]. These responses also stimulate neuropeptides and local and remote nociceptors subcutaneously.

The ability of the extracellular matrix to act as a mechanical network, is being evaluated, in which, the physiological activities of the cells, interstitial elements and signals interact through the whole body [ 35 , 36 ]. It is worth highlighting that channels and acupuncture points as well as Head zones come from the clinical observation of patients with changes in tenderness, pain, subcutaneous skin stiffness, and cephalea associated with organic diseases [ 30 ].

Although the clinical study of Head is much more recent and less complex than the compendium of TCM, it is interesting to realize the viscerocutaneous relationships they share, which are not considered enough in allopathic medicine. On the other hand, Sir Head mentioned that there are painful points of variable locations that can be found beyond the areas described, points related to visceral pathology [ 14 ]. In a similar way TCM describes ashi points of variable locations outside the channels, which are painful on palpation [ 11 ].

These results could provide a support for many of the segmental and remote reactions which are evident in the daily practice of neural therapy, through the concepts of interference field or neurodystrophy, as well as providing to the neural therapist a broad spectrum of knowledge about possible responses to specific therapeutic interventions.

Even though Sir Head describes within his findings on head and neck a relation of tenderness in face associated with dental disease, these findings are not treated in the present work but they could be considered for future research. Head zones have changed over time in terms of segmentation of dermatomes [ 15 ], a reason to develop more accurate searching and evaluation methods.

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These responses also stimulate neuropeptides and local and remote nociceptors subcutaneously.

I have tried to include the various definitions and descriptions of the fasciae presented in the literature, for the reference of scholars in this area. Discussion This paper is a research in the field of neural therapy, looking for a descriptive and comparative analysis to identify the anatomical and functional correlations between channels and acupoints in TCM and the viscerocutaneous relationships found by Head as a contribution for neural therapy practice.