INDERBIR SINGH HISTOLOGY PDF

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Textbook of HUMAN HISTOLOGY (With Colour Atlas & Practical Guide) SIXTH EDITION Textbook of HUMAN HISTOLOGY (With Colour Atlas & Practical Guide) . The book Inderbir Singh's Textbook of Human Histology with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide gives comprehensive information about human. Inderbir Singh's Textbook of Human Histology with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide {United VRG}.pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read.


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This is called depolarisation. The vesicle then ruptures releasing the molecule to the exterior. Stimulation of such receptors e. This function is most developed in nerve and muscle cells.

Fusogenic proteins also help in exocytosis by facilitating fusion of membrane surrounding vesicles with the cell membrane. Coated pit as seen by electron microscope a scaffolding around the developing vesicle in cell membrane Schematic representation 12 contd.

Three stages in the absorption Fig. The membrane lining the floor of the pits is thickened because of the presence of a protein called clathrin.

Inderbir Singh's Textbook of Human Histology with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide {United VRG}.pdf

Three stages in exocytosis. This protein forms Fig. ContaCts between adjoining Cells In tissues in which cells are closely packed. Caveolae also play a role in transport of extracellular molecules to the cytosol without formation of vesicles Fig.

The process is called potocytosis Schematic representation and facilitates its separation from the cell membrane. In some regions the cell membranes of adjoining cells come into more intimate contact. These molecules occupy the entire thickness of the cell membrane i. Caveolae differ from coated pits in that they are not transformed into vesicles.

This contact is sufficient to bind cells loosely together At such sites adjoining cell membranes are held together by some glycoprotein molecules. The transport takes place through invaginations of cell membrane called caveolae. A protein caveolin is associated with caveolae Fig. The other end of the CAM juts into the 20 nm intercellular space. In this way a path is established through which forces can be transmitted from the cytoskeleton of one cell to another Fig.

How extracellular molecules can pass Fig. At its cytosolic end. The process is seen mainly in flat cells e. These areas can be classified as follows: Fibrous elements of the cytoskeleton are attached to this intermediate protein and thus indirectly to CAMs.

How extracellular molecules enter the through the entire thickness of a cell transcytosis. Endocytic vesicles are Caveolae are involved Schematic representation not formed. Contacts between cells can be classified on the basis of the type of CAMs proteins present. The adhesion of some CAMs is dependent on the presence of calcium ions.

Types of Specialised Junctions Fig. Intermediate proteins are also of various types catenins. Basic structure of an unspecialised contact The basic mode of intercellular contact in between two cells Schematic representation them is similar to that described above and involves CAMs. About 20 types of integrins. They can be of the following types: Various types of specialised junctions Schematic representation 14 Chapter Table 2. Leucocytes Integrins Between cells and intercellular substances.

Macula Adherens These are the most common type of junctions between adjoining cells. We now know that the fibrils seen in the intercellular space represent CAMs Fig.. Cytoskeletal filaments atta- ched to the thickened area are intermediate filaments.

Such junctions allow direct transport of some substances from cell to cell. The region of the gap is rich in glycoproteins. Anchoring Junctions Adhesion Spots Desmosomes. The thickened area or plaque seen on the cytosolic aspect of the cell membrane is produced by the presence of intermediate link proteins.

Electron microscope appearance of The thickened areas of the two sides are zonula adherens Schematic representation separated by a gap of 25 nm. CAMs seen in desmosomes are integrins desmogleins I. As seen by EM. Chapter 2 Cell Structure Modified anchoring junctions attach cells to extracellular material. At the site of a desmosome. Apart from holding cells together. Detailed structure of a desmosome in the epidermis epithelial cells. The thickened areas of the two membranes are held together by fibrils that appear to pass from one membrane to the other across the gap.

Such junctions are seen as hemidesmosomes or as focal spots. Electron microscope appearance of a cytoplasm. The link proteins are desmoplakins. Adhesive Belts Zonula Adherens In some situations. Desmosomes are present where strong anchorage between cells is needed. Such junctions are of a transient nature e. In epithelial cells zona adherens are located immediately deep to occluding junctions Fig. Hemidesmosomes These are similar to desmosomes. Adhesive Strips Fascia Adherens These are similar to adhesive belts.

The CAMs in focal spots are integrins. The cytoskeletal elements attached to intermediate proteins are keratin filaments as against intermediate filaments in desmosomes. This is similar to a desmosome in being marked by thickenings of the two plasma membranes. Zonula occludens as seen by electron Zonulae occludens are. They represent areas of local adhesion of a cell to extracellular matrix.

Such contacts may send signals to the cell and initiate cytoskeletal formation. As in desmosomes. Gap junction as seen by electron tight junctions Fig. These are seen in relation to smooth muscle.

They differ from the latter in that the areas of attachment are in the form of short strips and do not go all round the cell. At such junctions.

Hemidesmosomes are common where basal epidermal cells lie against connective tissue. At such a junction the two plasma membranes are in actual contact Fig. Occluding Junctions Zonula Occludens Like the zonula adherens. Focal Spots These are also called focal adhesion plaques. The CAMs present are cadherins. The intermediate proteins that bind integrins to actin filaments are a-actinin. Textbook of Human Histology junction called the zonula adherens or adhesive belt Fig.

These junctions not only bind the cells to each other but also act as barriers that prevent the movement of molecules into the intercellular spaces. Occluding junctions prevent lateral migration of such proteins.

Chapter 2 Cell Structure Added Information Recent studies have provided a clearer view of the structure of tight junctions Fig. Other functions attributed to occluding junctions are as follows: Junctional Complex Near the apices of epithelial cells the three types of junctions described above.

They collectively form a junctional complex. In transmission electronmicrographs this gap is seen to contain bead-like structures Fig. In some situations occlusion of the gaps between the adjoining cells may be incomplete and the junction may allow slow diffusion of molecules across it. Gap junctions are.

Detailed structure of part of an occluding prevent back diffusion of transported sub. In some complexes. Apart from epithelial cells. Communicating Junctions Gap Junctions At these junctions. These are referred to as leaky tight junctions. A junctional complex schematic the cytoplasm of the two cells thus allowing the free representations passage of some substances sodium. They are widely distributed in the body. The cytosol also contains a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules.

As seen under electron microscope. By allowing passing of ions they lower transcellular electrical resistance.

They include the endoplasmic reticulum ER. Here they come in contact with and align perfectly with similar connexins projecting into the space from the cell membrane of the opposite cell to complete the channel.

Centrioles are closely connected Fig. Gap junctions form electrical synapses between some neurons. A communicating junction gap junction. The cell organelles can be mem- brane bound or without membrane Table 2.

Cell organelles The cytoplasm of a typical cell contains various structures that are referred to as organelles. To show the constitution of one channel of a communicating junction Schematic representation The wall of each channel is made up of six protein elements called nexins.

Some features of a cell that can be seen with microtubules. The proteins. Various organelles found in a typical cell Schematic representation 19 Chapter Exocytic vesicles endoplasmic reticulum It is a network of interconnecting membranes enclosing channels or cisternae. Because of the presence of the endoplasmic reticulum ER the cytoplasm is divided into two components.

ER is very prominent in cells actively synthesising proteins.

The cytoplasm within the channels is called the vacuoplasm. Chapter 2 Cell Structure Table 2. Intermediate filaments. The mitochondrion is bounded by a smooth outer membrane within which there is an inner membrane..

Mitochondria are large in cells with a high oxidative metabolism. It is also continuous with the lumen of smooth ER. An interesting fact. It is also responsible for synthesis of lipids. Erythrocytes do not contain mitochondria. These are believed to carry information that enables mitochondria to duplicate themselves during cell division.

It is a prominent feature of cells processing lipids. The space bounded by the inner membrane is filled by a granular material called the matrix. Most cells have very little smooth ER. Mitochondria vary in size. This matrix contains numerous enzymes. Smooth ER is responsible for further processing of proteins synthesised in rough ER. The ribosome is made up of two subunits small 40S and large 60S classified on the basis of their sedimentation rates.

They may be present singly in which case they are called monosomes. The rough appearance of rough ER is due to ribosomes attached to cytoplasmic side of membrane which play an important role in protein synthesis. Each ribosome consists of proteins and RNA ribonucleic acid and is about 15 nm in diameter. Products synthesised by the ER are stored in the channels within the reticulum. Ribosomes play an essential role in protein synthesis. The inner membrane is highly folded on itself forming incomplete partitions called cristae.

Mitochondria are of great functional importance. It is the power house of the cell. They may also lie free in the cytoplasm. The number of mitochondria varies from cell to cell being greatest in cells with high metabolic activity e.

A schematic presentation of some details of the structure of a mitochondrion as seen by EM is shown in Figure 2. Mitochondria Mitochondria can be seen with the light microscope in specially stained preparations Fig. It is a prominent feature of cells synthesising proteins. The lumen of rough ER is continuous with the perinuclear space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes.

Adenosine triphosphate ATP and guanosine triphosphate GTP are formed in mitochondria from where they pass to other parts of the cell and provide energy for various cellular functions. When examined with the EM. Their lumen is not in communication with that of ER. In light microscopic preparations suitably treated with silver salts. The features which differ in intensity from patient to patient includes muscle weakness.

Structure of a mitochondrion Schematic representation Added Information The enzymes of the TCA cycle are located in the matrix of mitochondria. The membranes form the walls of a number of flattened sacs that are stacked over one another. The condition can be diagnosed by EM examination of muscle biopsies. Enzymes for lipid synthesis and fatty acid metabolism are located in the outer membrane.

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This interferes with mitochondrial and cell functions. The cisternae of the Golgi complex form an independent system. Towards their margins the sacs are continuous with small rounded vesicles. The mitochondria show characteristic para-crystalline inclusions. Material from ER reaches the Golgi complex through vesicles.

The role of the Golgi complex in formation of secretory vacuoles Schematic representation 22 Chapter The region nearest the nucleus is the cis face or cis Golgi.

Here sugar residues are added to proteins to form protein-carbohydrate complexes glycoproteins. Textbook of Human Histology From a functional point of view the Golgi complex is divi- sible into three regions Fig.

The opposite face nearest the cell membrane is the trans face also referred to as trans Golgi. From the cis face all these materials pass into the medial Golgi. Vesicles budding off from smooth ER transport this material to the cis face of the Golgi complex. Some proteins are phosphorylated here. The intermediate part between the cis face and the trans face is the medial Golgi.

Material synthesised in rough ER travels through the Fig. Chapter 2 Cell Structure Finally. Exocytic Vesicles Just as material from outside the cell can be brought into the cytoplasm by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.

Secretory Granules The cytoplasm of secretory cells frequently contains what are called secretory granules. Such membrane bound vesicles. Pinocytotic Vesicles Some fluid may also be taken into the cytoplasm by a process similar to phagocytosis. Such vesicles are called exocytic vesicles. In the case of fluids. Other Storage Vesicles Materials such as lipids. In this process. Details of the appearances of various types of vesicles will not be considered here.

With the EM. These vesicles are derived from the Golgi complex. As proteins pass through successive sacs of Golgi they undergo a process of purification. Some vesicles serve to store material. Membrane bound Vesicles The cytoplasm of a cell may contain several types of vesicles.

The contents of any such vesicle are separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by a membrane which forms the wall of the vesicle.

The membranes of the Golgi complex contain appropriate enzymes for the functions performed by them. Others transport material into or out of the cell.

Vesicles are formed by budding off from existing areas of membrane. This part of the cell membrane then separates from the rest of the plasma membrane and forms a free floating vesicle within the cytoplasm.

These can be seen with the light microscope. Vesicles also allow exchange of membrane between different parts of the cell. The appearance. The stages in the formation of a lysosome are as follows: These endosomes possess the membrane proteins necessary for producing an acid medium. As many as 40 different lysosomal enzymes have been identified.

Lysosomes belong to what has been described as the acid vesicle system. The enzymes in these vesicles are inactive because of the lack of an acid medium These are called primary lysosomes or Golgi hydrolase vesicles Flow chart 2. The enzymes present in lysosomes include amongst others proteases. Such material may have been taken into the cell from outside e. Schematic representation to show how lysosomes. The Flow chart Types of lysosomes 24 Chapter The enzymes are involved in oxidation of very long chain fatty acids.

Examples of such disorders are lysosomal glycogen storage disease. As a result some molecules cannot be degraded. Lysosomal enzymes play an important role in the destruction of bacteria phagocytosed by the cell. This activates the enzymes and a mature lysosome is formed.

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A lysosome. Clinical Correlation Genetic defects can lead to absence of specific acid hydrolases that are normally present in lysosomes. Lysosomes are present in all cells except mature erythrocytes. Peroxisomes These are similar to lysosomes in that they are membrane bound vesicles containing enzymes. The enzymes in most of them react with other substances to form hydrogen peroxide. The structures formed by such fusion often appear to have numerous small vesicles within them and are.

Some of it is thrown out of the cell by exocytosis. Chapter 2 Cell Structure product formed by fusion of the two vesicles is an endolysosome or secondary lysosome Flow chart 2. They are a prominent feature in neutrophil leucocytes. Peroxisomes are most prominent in cells of the liver and in cells of renal tubules. These bodies consisting of fused phagosomes and lysosomes are referred to as phagolysosomes Fig. Some peroxisomes contain the enzyme catalase which converts the toxic hydrogen peroxide to water.

In a similar manner lysosomes may also fuse with pinocytotic vesicles. Lysosomal enzymes may also be discharged out of the cell and may influence adjoining structures. Hydrogen peroxide resulting from the reactions is bactericidal. The filaments can separate under the influence of actin severing proteins. They prevent tubules of ER from collapsing. Such transport is specially important in transport along axons. The roles played by microtubules are as follows: The cell cortex helps to maintain the shape of the cell.

Apart from maintaining cellular architecture the cytoskeleton facilitates cell motility e. Microfilaments These are about 5 nm in diameter. The wall of a microtubule is made up of thirteen protofilaments that run longitudinally Fig. The elements that constitute the cytoskeleton consist of the following: Filaments also extend into other protrusions from the cell surface. This network is called the cytoskeleton. The tubu- lin protofilaments are stabilised by microtubule associated proteins MAPs.

The meshwork of the cell cortex is labile. Schematic representation to show how a Microtubules are formed in microtubule is constituted centrioles see below which constitute a microtubule organising centre.

They are made up of the protein actin. Some proteins dynein. These join together polymerise to form long chains called F-actin. The basic constituent of microtubules is the protein tubulin composed of subunits a and b.

Individual molecules of actin are globular G-actin. Chains of tubu- lin form protofilaments. That is how the shape of a cell is altered. Microtubules Microtubules are about 25 nm in diameter Fig. Actin filaments form a meshwork just subjacent to the cell membrane.

It also facilitates transport of some constituents through the cytosol. Microvilli contain bundles of actin filaments.

This meshwork is called the cell cortex The filaments forming the meshwork are held together by a protein called filamin. Textbook of Human Histology the Cytoskeleton The cytoplasm is permeated by a number of fibrillar elements that collectively form a supporting network.

Laminin in the nuclear lamina of cells. Neurofibrils help to maintain the cylindrical shape of axons. They do so as they are attached to transmembrane proteins at desmosomes.

The filaments also facilitate cell attachment to extracellular elements at hemidesmosomes. The proteins constituting these filaments vary in different types of cells. The roles played by intermediate filaments are as follows: They include cytokeratin in epithelial cells. They also form the main constituent of hair and nails. In some cells the nuclei are relatively large 28 Chapter The intracellular deposition of masses of filaments may cause disruption of cytoskeleton architecture and subsequent neuronal cell death leading to dementia memory loss.

Note nine groups various cellular structures that are made up of microtubules. Defect in the proper assembly of intermediate filaments leads to various diseases. When we examine a transverse section across a centriole by EM it is seen to consist essentially of a series of microtubules arranged in a circle.

All cells in the body contain nucleus. There are nine groups of tubules. It is characterised by defect in the organisation of microtubules that can immobilise the cilia of respiratory epithelium resulting in the inability of the respiratory system to clear accumulated secretions. Chromatin In usual class-room slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. It is of interest to note that cilia. Transverse section across a Centrioles play an important role in the formation of centriole near its base.

The changes in the neurofilaments within the brain lead to Alzheimer's disease. The disease is characterised by accumulation of tangles inside the neurons.

Centrioles All cells capable of division and even some which do not divide contain a pair of structures called centrioles. With the light microscope. It is usually rounded or ellipsoid.

IB Singh – Textbook of Human Histology, 6th Edition [PDF]

Occasionally it may be elongated. The structure formed by a histone complex and the DNA fibre coiled around it is called a nucleosome. Comparison of a heterochromatic and in which relatively large areas of nucleus left and a euchromatic nucleus right euchromatin can be seen are referred to Schematic representation as open-face nuclei.

Each eukaryotic cell contains genetic information encoded in DNA structure. These filaments constitute chromatin. These chains are coiled on themselves in a helical manner to form filaments 30 nm in diameter. Most of the proteins in chromatin are histones. Filaments of chromatin are again coiled on themselves supercoiling.

Nature and Significance of Chromatin In recent years. It is made up of a substance called DNA. Nuclei that are made up mainly of heterochromatin are referred to as closed-face nuclei Fig. Nuclei which are large Fig. At other places the network is loose and stains lightly—the chromatin of such areas is referred to as euchromatin. A little calculation will show that this represents a reduction in length of The portion of the DNA fibre between the entire chromatin within the nucleus becomes the nucleosomes is called linker-DNA very tightly coiled and takes on the appearance of a Schematic representation 29 Chapter Heterochromatin represents areas where chromatin Fig.

Each coiling produces a thicker filament. Nucleosomes give the where coiling is not so marked. The length of the DNA molecule is At some places the chromatin is seen in the form of irregular dark masses that are called heterochromatin. Filaments of DNA form coils around histone complexes.

Nucleosomes are attached to one another forming long chains Fig. Some non-histone proteins are also present. Chapter 2 Cell Structure and light staining.

Structure of a chromatin fibre. During cell division. Such nuclei appear to be made up of a delicate network of fibres—the material making up the fibres of the network is called chromatin because of its affinity for dyes. In contrast. Added Information Some details of the formation of a histone complex are shown in Figure 2. Nucleoli are formed in relationship to the secondary constrictions of specific chromosomes discussed later. Two molecules each of H2A.

One nucleosome is connected to the next by a Fig. Added Information With the EM nucleoli are seen to have a central filamentous zone pars filamentosa and an outer granular zone pars granulosa both of which are embedded in an amorphous material pars amorphosa Fig. Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins. Proteins stabilise the structure of chromosomes.

Ribosomal RNA is at first in the form of long fibres that constitute the fibrous zone of nucleoli. H3 and H4. It is then broken up into smaller pieces ribosomal subunits that constitute the granular zone. The DNA filament is wound twice around this core. Linker DNA is made complex forming the nucleosome core up of about 50 nucleotide pairs. Detailed composition of a histone short length of linker DNA.

H3 and H4 join to form a granular mass. They stain intensely both with haematoxylin and eosin. The templates for this synthesis are located on the related chromosomes. The length of the DNA filament in one nucleosome contains nucleotide pairs. These regions are considered to be nucleolar organising centres. Textbook of Human Histology number of short. Electron microscopic structure of a chromosomes located within nucleoli constitute nucleolus the pars chromosoma of nucleoli.

Nucleoli are site where ribosomal RNA is synthesised. In ordinary preparations. Schematic representation Nucleoli In addition to the masses of heterochromatin which are irregular in outline. Nucleoli are larger and more distinct in cells that are metabolically active. These are H1. Five types of histones are recognised. Parts of the Fig.

This is continuous with the lumen of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The nuclear pore is about 80 nm across. At several points the inner and outer layers of the nuclear membrane fuse leaving gaps called nuclear pores.

It is partly covered by a diaphragm that allows passage only to particles less than 9 nm in diameter. Deep to the inner membrane there is a layer containing proteins and a network of filaments this layer is called the nuclear lamina. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Medical knowledge and practice change constantly. This book is designed to provide accurate, authoritative information about the subject matter in question.

However, readers are advised to check the most current information available on procedures included and check information from the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recom- mended dose, formula, method and duration of administration, adverse effects and contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to take all appropriate safety precautions.

This book is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in providing professional medical services. If such advice or services are required, the services of a competent medical professional should be sought.

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Intermediate proteins are also of various types catenins. There is no muscularis mucosae and submucosa. Some of them are dark staining and usually bluish and are termed serous acini. Spleen When cut transversely the cords of spleen resemble the lymphatic nodules of lymph nodes. Oesophagus High power A23 Color Atlas. Keeping this in mind, advanced information on various topics has been included as Added Information to cater to the needs of postgraduate students.

The cytosol also contains a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules. Centrioles All cells capable of division and even some which do not divide contain a pair of structures called centrioles.